Rupert, A. (2017) A Socio-Ecological Framework for Advances in Mental Health and Mental Health Well-Being 15(2), 105-107. One case of exosystems affecting child development could be when a parent has argued with their boss at work. The mesosystem is the sphere in which the child`s microsystems interact with each other and, in turn, influence the child. Bronfenbrenner`s (1974) perspective somewhat resembles the work of Albert Bandua`s theory of social learning and Lev Vygotsky`s sociocultural theory, in which the environment is explicitly or implicitly considered a crucial mechanism of development. Some aspects of the theory, such as the mesosystem and chronosystem, remain vaguely defined and understood. The macrosystem is a component of Bronfenbrenner`s theory of ecological systems, which focuses on how cultural elements influence a child`s development, such as socioeconomic status, wealth, poverty, and ethnicity. It is important to note that Bronfenbrenner (1994) later revised his theory and called it the «bioecological model» instead. Eriksson, M., Ghazinour, M. & Hammarström, A. (2018) Different uses of Bronfenbrenner`s ecological theory in public mental health research: what is its value in guiding public mental health policy and practice?.

Social Theory and Health 16, 414-433. The fifth and final level of Bronfenbrenner`s theory of ecological systems is known as the chronosystem. This theory, published in 1979, has influenced many psychologists on how the person is analyzed and the effects of the different environmental systems they encounter. The theory of ecological systems has since become an important theory that has become the basis for the work of other theorists. Although the application of ecological systems theory has produced tangible positive results in practice, it is not always clear that these results were actually caused by the application of ecological systems theory. Another limitation of Bronfenbrenner`s theory is that it is difficult to test the theory empirically. Studies that examine ecological systems can find an effect, but they cannot determine whether the systems are the direct cause of these effects. The exosystem is part of the theory of ecological systems developed by Urie Bronfenbrenner in the 1970s. It involves other formal and informal social structures that do not contain the child himself, but influence him indirectly, as they affect one of the microsystems. For example, if a child`s parents communicate with the child`s teachers, this interaction can affect the child`s development.

Essentially, a mesosystem is a system of microsystems. The assumption was that what would be applicable to the subject under conditions of laboratory-induced isolation would also be applicable under other conditions. Kelly and Coughlan (2019) used the analysis of constructivist theory to develop a theoretical framework for restoring adolescent mental health, noting that there were many links to Bronfenbrenner`s theory of ecological systems in their own more recent theory. Interactions within microsystems are often very personal and crucial to promoting and supporting child development. A limitation of ecological systems theory is that there is little research on mesosystems; mainly interactions between neighbourhoods and the child`s family (Leventhal & Brooks-Gunn, 2000). As a result, it is not clear to what extent these systems can shape child development. The mesosystem includes interactions between the child`s microsystems, such as interactions between the child`s parents and teachers, or between peers and siblings. Moreover, this theory can lead to the assumption that those who do not have strong and positive ecological systems do not have development. While this may be true in some cases, many people can still become well-rounded individuals without positive influences from their ecological systems. This could indicate that ecological systems are still valid, but that they will develop over time with new modern developments. Lippard, L.A. Paro, Rouse and Crosby (2017) conducted a study to test Bronfenbrenner`s theory.

They studied teacher-child relationships through teacher reports and classroom observations. For example, the theory`s recommendations have been used to design community support services in the United States and elsewhere. The mesosystem contains the relationships between microsystems in life. This means that your family experience may be linked to your school experience.